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WIOA/ Workforce Development

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) maintains a primary focus on assisting job seekers with and without disabilities in succeeding in the labor market, matching employers with skilled workers who benefit from education, skills training, and career services from the workforce development system.  The LEAD Center is focused on highlighting the opportunities presented in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) to build integrated cross-system collaborations that improve employment and economic outcomes for youth and adult job seekers with disabilities.

 
LEAD Center - A Resource Developed by LEAD Center for ODEP
 

One Size Does Not Fit All: A New Look at the Labor Force Participation of People with Disabilities

September 2015 | Report/Brief | American Institutes for Research

A just-released brief from the American Institutes for Research casts new light on a perennial problem: the one-third of people with disabilities who haven’t sought work or stopped trying to find it.

Integrating Financial Capability and Asset Building Strategies into the Public Workforce Development System

LEAD Center | July 2015 | Report/Brief | LEAD Center

The development of financial capability strategies are critical for sustaining financial security. This paper describes some of the replicable models that AJCs have established to provide financial capability services.

Do Ask, Do Tell

June 2015 | Report/Brief | The Conference Board

This research investigates what companies are doing to build a disability-inclusive culture and encourage employees with disabilities to voluntarily self-identify, as many organizations with government contracts are now required to do under recent

FAQs: Using Customized Employment’s Discovery and Group Discovery Models to Promote Job Seeker Success in American Job Centers

LEAD Center | May 2015 | Report/Brief | LEAD Center

If you haven’t heard of Customized Employment or you think it has little relevance to helping today’s job seekers in the nation’s American Job Centers (AJC), think again.

Summary Description from a Disability Perspective - Title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (Workforce Development Activities) Notices of Proposed Rulemaking

LEAD Center | April 2015 | Report/Brief | LEAD Center

This policy brief outlines, from the disability perspective, key provisions of two Notices of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) pertaining to the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), i.e., those provisions in title I of WIOA pertaining to wor

Summary Description of Title IV of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (State Vocational Rehabilitation Program) Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

LEAD Center | April 2015 | Report/Brief | LEAD Center

The purpose of this policy brief is to provide a summary of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) regarding Title IV of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA).

The Journey to Life After High School: A Road Map for Parents of Children with Special Needs

April 2015 | Report/Brief | AbilityPath

Whether you have a middle schooler (11–14), a high schooler (14–18), or even a young adult (18–26), this is a tool for you to use as you begin planning your child’s transition into adulthood.

What Every Employer Needs to Know: Key Success Factors for Hiring People with Disabilities

March 2015 | Report/Brief | The Hartford

In this March 2015 report, disability experts announce research that found 80 percent of people with disabilities achieved their career goals at an acceptable level or higher when they had individualized support from employers.

Recruiting, Hiring, Retaining, and Promoting People with Disabilities: A Resource Guide for Employers

February 2015 | Tool/Manual | White House Domestic Policy Council

This resource guide identifies relevant federal and federally funded resources for employers looking to recruit, hire, retain, and promote people with disabilities.

Accommodation and Compliance Series: Leave as an Accommodation

January 2015 | Report/Brief | Job Accommodation Network

This publication answers frequently asked questions and seeks to clear confusion surrounding employers permitting the use of accrued paid leave, or providing unpaid leave, when an employee's disability necessitates it.

Creating an Inclusive Workforce System: Implementing WIOA Section 188’s Equal Opportunity Provisions

January 20, 2016

Section 188 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) prohibits discrimination against people who apply to, participate in, work for, or come into contact with programs and activities of the workforce development system.

Disability, Employment & Lane v. Brown

October 22, 2015

On September 8, 2015, the United States entered into a proposed settlement agreement with the State of Oregon to vindicate the civil rights of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) who are unnecessarily segregated in

Section 188, the Nondiscrimination Provisions of WIOA - Part 4 of a 4-part Series on WIOA

September 24, 2015

Join this webinar to learn about best practices in Section 188 implementation and compliance.

Understanding Changes Regarding Youth Services - Part 3 of a 4-Part Series on WIOA

June 24, 2015

View this webinar to learn more about cross-system collaboration and WIOA opportunities to support career counseling, skills training, job exploration, leadership development, and financial literacy education for youth with and without disabilities.

WIOA and the Unified State Planning Process - Part 2 of 4-Part Series on WIOA

April 29, 2015

View this webinar to identify key components of a Plan, and explore a collaborative approach to developing the Unified State Plan to include stakeholders in the disability community.

WIOA From a Disability Perspective: An Overview - Part 1 of 4

February 25, 2015

The LEAD Center, funded by the US Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Policy, is hosting a four-part webinar series titled "WIOA From a Disability Perspective."

CILs and AJCs: Strategic Partnerships that Lead to Better Employment and Economic Advancement Outcomes

September 24, 2014

A growing number of Centers for Independent Living are providing employment services to meet the needs of their customers and to improve the employment and economic advancement outcomes of individuals with disabilities.

NAWDP Webinar: Improving Services for All Job Seekers by Improving Services to Customers with Disabilities

September 16, 2014

The new Workforce Innovation and Opportunities Act places a greater emphasis on serving all job seekers – regardless of ability.

Best Practices in Employee Retention and Return-to-Work: Lessons Learned from Employers

August 27, 2014

Disability management and prevention is an important component in retaining talented employees and reducing turnover costs. In 2013, the LEAD Center studied a large successful U.S.

Section 503: Connecting Job Seekers with Disabilities and Federal Contractors through the Workforce Development System

April 23, 2014

There are new challenges and opportunities for federal contractors as a result of requirements of the Section 503 final rule.

LEAD Center Presentations Support the 2015 National APSE Annual Conference

June 30, 2015

For the first time, the LEAD Center participated in the National Association of People Supporting Employment First (APSE) Conference in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 23-25, by providing two presentations on strategies to improve the employment

LEAD Center Launches Four-Part Webinar Series on the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)

March 31, 2015

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), signed into law by President Obama last July, maintains a primary focus on assisting job seekers and workers with and without disabilities to succeed in the labor market, and matches employers w

LEAD PEOPLE David Mank, Ph.D., Director of the Indiana Institute on Disability and Community at Indiana University

March 31, 2015

David Mank, Ph.D., is the Director of the Indiana Institute on Disability

Employment and Training Administration Releases a Training Employment Guidance Letter Concerning the Workforce Opportunity and Innovation Act

March 31, 2015

Consistent with the various timelines stipulated in WIOA, we can expect the release of related materials developed by various federal agencies and departments articulating how states should begin implementing the law. One such piece was recently r

FEATURED AGENCY Advisory Committee on Increasing Competitive Integrated Employment for Individuals with Disabilities

March 31, 2015

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) establishes several new and exciting mandates aimed at increasing the participation of individuals with disabilities in the American workforce.

LEAD Participates in Congressional Briefing on Disability Pay Gap

March 31, 2015

At a time when people with disabilities earn 63 cents for every dollar earned by people without disabilities, LEAD Assistant Project Director Elizabeth Jennings joined a panel of leading

White House Hosts Summit on Disability and Employment

March 31, 2015

On February 3rd, the Obama Administration hosted the "Summit on Disability and Employment.” Focused on providing businesses, advocates and the general public with information on new and existing federal resources to improve employment opportunitie

Best Practices in Employee Retention and Return-to-Work: An In-Depth Look Inside an Exemplary American Corporation

December 21, 2014

Successful companies work to maintain the productivity and health of their workforce, which includes providing accommodations for older workers and people with disabilities.

LEAD Center Presentations Support Be the Future TASH Conference

December 21, 2014

For nearly 40 years, LEAD Center’s partner, TASH, has provided annual TASH Conferences to “impact the disability field by connecting attendees to innovative information and resources, facilitating connections between stakeholders in the disability

New Resource on WIOA from a Disability Perspective

December 21, 2014

On July 22, 2014, President Obama signed into law the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) (Public Law No. 113-128).

U.S. Department of Justice Releases Further Clarification on How the ADA and Olmstead Apply to Employment Services and Settings

November 4, 2016

On October 31, the U.S. Department of Justice released guidance on how the Integration Mandate of Title II of the ADA and the Olmstead decision are to be applied to state and local governments’ employment service systems.

New from the LEAD Center: Summary Review of the Final Rules Implementing Titles I and IV of WIOA, from a Disability Perspective

July 8, 2016

The LEAD Center is pleased to make available to you two policy briefs to provide a summary description from a disability perspective on the Final Rules implementing Title I and Title IV of WIOA.

LEAD Center Reviews Unified WIOA State Plans: What We Learned

March 23, 2016

LEAD Center staff reviewed state plans from California, Iowa, and North Carolina utilizing a guide we developed that identifies key areas for plan design and implementation to advance effective and meaningful participation of youth and adults with

LEAD and DEI Partner to Discuss WIOA Section 188 Best Practices

March 9, 2016

The LEAD Center and Disability Employment Initiative (DEI) held a Peer Exchange to review and discuss Section 188 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA).

LEAD Presents at 2015 NAWDP Conference

May 18, 2015

Earlier this month, LEAD Center Assistant Project Director, Elizabeth Jennings, presented at the National Association of Workforce Development Professionals’ (NAWDP) 2015 Annual Conference in Las Vegas, Nevada.

WIOA NPRMS Now Available

April 3, 2015

On April 2, 2015, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration (ETA) issued five notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRMs) on the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA).

ODEP and LEAD Center’s Latest Report Highlights Employee Retention and Return-to-Work Best Practices

December 1, 2014

In December 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) and the LEAD Center released the report, “Best Practices in Employee Retention and Return-to-Work: An In-Depth Look Inside an Exemplary American...

October is National Disability Employment Awareness Month

October 1, 2014

This month, numerous organizations, agencies and individuals all across the country are joining together to celebrate National Disability Employment Awareness Month (NDEAM).

Advisory Committee to Increase Employment for Individuals with Disabilities Announced by US Labor Department

September 22, 2014

Nominations for individuals to serve on the committee due by Tuesday, Oct. 14.

U.S. DOL ETA to Host WIOA Stakeholder Consultation Webinars for Services to Individuals with Disabilities on Aug. 26 and Sept. 2

August 22, 2014

ETA is inviting state and local workforce leaders and practitioners, workforce system partners, customer and other stakeholders to participate in upcoming webinars to provide input on the implementation of the recently passed Workforce Innovation...

In the Know: Leveling the Playing Field - Attracting, Engaging and Advancing People with Disabilities

February 25, 2014

This report stems from the work of The Conference Board Research Working Group on Improving Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities.

In the Know: Flexible Work Arrangements Fact Sheet

February 12, 2014

This fact sheet from the LEAD Center desribes various best practices for employers when making job modifications to enable employees with disabilities to stay on the job or return to work.

In the Know: StateData - The National Report on Employment Services and Outcomes

January 15, 2014

Federal and state policy have helped to ensure opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities, as well as a path out of poverty and toward self-sufficiency.

Workplace Flexibility Is Not Just a Reasonable Accommodation

December 31, 2013

When the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued its final regulations for the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, its guidance listed several examples of flexible workplace policies that an employer could consider when choosing a reasonable

In the Know: The Aging Workforce: The Role of Medical Professionals in Helping Older Workers and Workers with Disabilities to Stay at Work or Return to Work and Remain Employed

November 5, 2013

This issue brief, from the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy and written by the former NTAR Leadership Center, summarizes the "The Aging Workforce: The Role of Medical Professionals in Helping Older Workers and Workers w

Customized Employment Tactics: Increasing Employment Opportunities by Job Developing Up the Supply Chain

September 27, 2013

Customized Employment (CE) represents a new service strategy choice for American Job Centers (AJCs) and their vendors. CE represents an opportunity to better serve AJC customers with complex barriers to work.

In the Know: Disability Employment Tabulation: 2008-2010

September 5, 2013

The U.S. Census Bureau's Disability Employment Tabulation – sponsored by the U.S.

In the Know: The Business Case for Workplace Flexibility

August 29, 2013

Workplace flexibility can strategically meet the needs of individuals with disabilities and businesses.

Categories - LG Tablet

 
LEAD Center - A Resource Developed by LEAD Center for ODEP
 

One Size Does Not Fit All: A New Look at the Labor Force Participation of People with Disabilities

September 2015 | Report/Brief | American Institutes for Research

A just-released brief from the American Institutes for Research casts new light on a perennial problem: the one-third of people with disabilities who haven’t sought work or stopped trying to find it.

Integrating Financial Capability and Asset Building Strategies into the Public Workforce Development System

LEAD Center | July 2015 | Report/Brief | LEAD Center

The development of financial capability strategies are critical for sustaining financial security. This paper describes some of the replicable models that AJCs have established to provide financial capability services.

Do Ask, Do Tell

June 2015 | Report/Brief | The Conference Board

This research investigates what companies are doing to build a disability-inclusive culture and encourage employees with disabilities to voluntarily self-identify, as many organizations with government contracts are now required to do under recent

FAQs: Using Customized Employment’s Discovery and Group Discovery Models to Promote Job Seeker Success in American Job Centers

LEAD Center | May 2015 | Report/Brief | LEAD Center

If you haven’t heard of Customized Employment or you think it has little relevance to helping today’s job seekers in the nation’s American Job Centers (AJC), think again.

Summary Description from a Disability Perspective - Title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (Workforce Development Activities) Notices of Proposed Rulemaking

LEAD Center | April 2015 | Report/Brief | LEAD Center

This policy brief outlines, from the disability perspective, key provisions of two Notices of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) pertaining to the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), i.e., those provisions in title I of WIOA pertaining to wor

Summary Description of Title IV of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (State Vocational Rehabilitation Program) Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

LEAD Center | April 2015 | Report/Brief | LEAD Center

The purpose of this policy brief is to provide a summary of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) regarding Title IV of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA).

The Journey to Life After High School: A Road Map for Parents of Children with Special Needs

April 2015 | Report/Brief | AbilityPath

Whether you have a middle schooler (11–14), a high schooler (14–18), or even a young adult (18–26), this is a tool for you to use as you begin planning your child’s transition into adulthood.

What Every Employer Needs to Know: Key Success Factors for Hiring People with Disabilities

March 2015 | Report/Brief | The Hartford

In this March 2015 report, disability experts announce research that found 80 percent of people with disabilities achieved their career goals at an acceptable level or higher when they had individualized support from employers.

Recruiting, Hiring, Retaining, and Promoting People with Disabilities: A Resource Guide for Employers

February 2015 | Tool/Manual | White House Domestic Policy Council

This resource guide identifies relevant federal and federally funded resources for employers looking to recruit, hire, retain, and promote people with disabilities.

Accommodation and Compliance Series: Leave as an Accommodation

January 2015 | Report/Brief | Job Accommodation Network

This publication answers frequently asked questions and seeks to clear confusion surrounding employers permitting the use of accrued paid leave, or providing unpaid leave, when an employee's disability necessitates it.

Creating an Inclusive Workforce System: Implementing WIOA Section 188’s Equal Opportunity Provisions

January 20, 2016

Section 188 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) prohibits discrimination against people who apply to, participate in, work for, or come into contact with programs and activities of the workforce development system.

Disability, Employment & Lane v. Brown

October 22, 2015

On September 8, 2015, the United States entered into a proposed settlement agreement with the State of Oregon to vindicate the civil rights of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) who are unnecessarily segregated in

Section 188, the Nondiscrimination Provisions of WIOA - Part 4 of a 4-part Series on WIOA

September 24, 2015

Join this webinar to learn about best practices in Section 188 implementation and compliance.

Understanding Changes Regarding Youth Services - Part 3 of a 4-Part Series on WIOA

June 24, 2015

View this webinar to learn more about cross-system collaboration and WIOA opportunities to support career counseling, skills training, job exploration, leadership development, and financial literacy education for youth with and without disabilities.

WIOA and the Unified State Planning Process - Part 2 of 4-Part Series on WIOA

April 29, 2015

View this webinar to identify key components of a Plan, and explore a collaborative approach to developing the Unified State Plan to include stakeholders in the disability community.

WIOA From a Disability Perspective: An Overview - Part 1 of 4

February 25, 2015

The LEAD Center, funded by the US Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Policy, is hosting a four-part webinar series titled "WIOA From a Disability Perspective."

CILs and AJCs: Strategic Partnerships that Lead to Better Employment and Economic Advancement Outcomes

September 24, 2014

A growing number of Centers for Independent Living are providing employment services to meet the needs of their customers and to improve the employment and economic advancement outcomes of individuals with disabilities.

NAWDP Webinar: Improving Services for All Job Seekers by Improving Services to Customers with Disabilities

September 16, 2014

The new Workforce Innovation and Opportunities Act places a greater emphasis on serving all job seekers – regardless of ability.

Best Practices in Employee Retention and Return-to-Work: Lessons Learned from Employers

August 27, 2014

Disability management and prevention is an important component in retaining talented employees and reducing turnover costs. In 2013, the LEAD Center studied a large successful U.S.

Section 503: Connecting Job Seekers with Disabilities and Federal Contractors through the Workforce Development System

April 23, 2014

There are new challenges and opportunities for federal contractors as a result of requirements of the Section 503 final rule.

LEAD Center Presentations Support the 2015 National APSE Annual Conference

June 30, 2015

For the first time, the LEAD Center participated in the National Association of People Supporting Employment First (APSE) Conference in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 23-25, by providing two presentations on strategies to improve the employment

LEAD Center Launches Four-Part Webinar Series on the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)

March 31, 2015

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), signed into law by President Obama last July, maintains a primary focus on assisting job seekers and workers with and without disabilities to succeed in the labor market, and matches employers w

LEAD PEOPLE David Mank, Ph.D., Director of the Indiana Institute on Disability and Community at Indiana University

March 31, 2015

David Mank, Ph.D., is the Director of the Indiana Institute on Disability

Employment and Training Administration Releases a Training Employment Guidance Letter Concerning the Workforce Opportunity and Innovation Act

March 31, 2015

Consistent with the various timelines stipulated in WIOA, we can expect the release of related materials developed by various federal agencies and departments articulating how states should begin implementing the law. One such piece was recently r

FEATURED AGENCY Advisory Committee on Increasing Competitive Integrated Employment for Individuals with Disabilities

March 31, 2015

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) establishes several new and exciting mandates aimed at increasing the participation of individuals with disabilities in the American workforce.

LEAD Participates in Congressional Briefing on Disability Pay Gap

March 31, 2015

At a time when people with disabilities earn 63 cents for every dollar earned by people without disabilities, LEAD Assistant Project Director Elizabeth Jennings joined a panel of leading

White House Hosts Summit on Disability and Employment

March 31, 2015

On February 3rd, the Obama Administration hosted the "Summit on Disability and Employment.” Focused on providing businesses, advocates and the general public with information on new and existing federal resources to improve employment opportunitie

Best Practices in Employee Retention and Return-to-Work: An In-Depth Look Inside an Exemplary American Corporation

December 21, 2014

Successful companies work to maintain the productivity and health of their workforce, which includes providing accommodations for older workers and people with disabilities.

LEAD Center Presentations Support Be the Future TASH Conference

December 21, 2014

For nearly 40 years, LEAD Center’s partner, TASH, has provided annual TASH Conferences to “impact the disability field by connecting attendees to innovative information and resources, facilitating connections between stakeholders in the disability

New Resource on WIOA from a Disability Perspective

December 21, 2014

On July 22, 2014, President Obama signed into law the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) (Public Law No. 113-128).

U.S. Department of Justice Releases Further Clarification on How the ADA and Olmstead Apply to Employment Services and Settings

November 4, 2016

On October 31, the U.S. Department of Justice released guidance on how the Integration Mandate of Title II of the ADA and the Olmstead decision are to be applied to state and local governments’ employment service systems.

New from the LEAD Center: Summary Review of the Final Rules Implementing Titles I and IV of WIOA, from a Disability Perspective

July 8, 2016

The LEAD Center is pleased to make available to you two policy briefs to provide a summary description from a disability perspective on the Final Rules implementing Title I and Title IV of WIOA.

LEAD Center Reviews Unified WIOA State Plans: What We Learned

March 23, 2016

LEAD Center staff reviewed state plans from California, Iowa, and North Carolina utilizing a guide we developed that identifies key areas for plan design and implementation to advance effective and meaningful participation of youth and adults with

LEAD and DEI Partner to Discuss WIOA Section 188 Best Practices

March 9, 2016

The LEAD Center and Disability Employment Initiative (DEI) held a Peer Exchange to review and discuss Section 188 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA).

LEAD Presents at 2015 NAWDP Conference

May 18, 2015

Earlier this month, LEAD Center Assistant Project Director, Elizabeth Jennings, presented at the National Association of Workforce Development Professionals’ (NAWDP) 2015 Annual Conference in Las Vegas, Nevada.

WIOA NPRMS Now Available

April 3, 2015

On April 2, 2015, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration (ETA) issued five notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRMs) on the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA).

ODEP and LEAD Center’s Latest Report Highlights Employee Retention and Return-to-Work Best Practices

December 1, 2014

In December 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) and the LEAD Center released the report, “Best Practices in Employee Retention and Return-to-Work: An In-Depth Look Inside an Exemplary American...

October is National Disability Employment Awareness Month

October 1, 2014

This month, numerous organizations, agencies and individuals all across the country are joining together to celebrate National Disability Employment Awareness Month (NDEAM).

Advisory Committee to Increase Employment for Individuals with Disabilities Announced by US Labor Department

September 22, 2014

Nominations for individuals to serve on the committee due by Tuesday, Oct. 14.

U.S. DOL ETA to Host WIOA Stakeholder Consultation Webinars for Services to Individuals with Disabilities on Aug. 26 and Sept. 2

August 22, 2014

ETA is inviting state and local workforce leaders and practitioners, workforce system partners, customer and other stakeholders to participate in upcoming webinars to provide input on the implementation of the recently passed Workforce Innovation...

In the Know: Leveling the Playing Field - Attracting, Engaging and Advancing People with Disabilities

February 25, 2014

This report stems from the work of The Conference Board Research Working Group on Improving Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities.

In the Know: Flexible Work Arrangements Fact Sheet

February 12, 2014

This fact sheet from the LEAD Center desribes various best practices for employers when making job modifications to enable employees with disabilities to stay on the job or return to work.

In the Know: StateData - The National Report on Employment Services and Outcomes

January 15, 2014

Federal and state policy have helped to ensure opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities, as well as a path out of poverty and toward self-sufficiency.

Workplace Flexibility Is Not Just a Reasonable Accommodation

December 31, 2013

When the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued its final regulations for the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, its guidance listed several examples of flexible workplace policies that an employer could consider when choosing a reasonable

In the Know: The Aging Workforce: The Role of Medical Professionals in Helping Older Workers and Workers with Disabilities to Stay at Work or Return to Work and Remain Employed

November 5, 2013

This issue brief, from the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy and written by the former NTAR Leadership Center, summarizes the "The Aging Workforce: The Role of Medical Professionals in Helping Older Workers and Workers w

Customized Employment Tactics: Increasing Employment Opportunities by Job Developing Up the Supply Chain

September 27, 2013

Customized Employment (CE) represents a new service strategy choice for American Job Centers (AJCs) and their vendors. CE represents an opportunity to better serve AJC customers with complex barriers to work.

In the Know: Disability Employment Tabulation: 2008-2010

September 5, 2013

The U.S. Census Bureau's Disability Employment Tabulation – sponsored by the U.S.

In the Know: The Business Case for Workplace Flexibility

August 29, 2013

Workplace flexibility can strategically meet the needs of individuals with disabilities and businesses.

Categories - SM Tablet

Resources

 
LEAD Center - A Resource Developed by LEAD Center for ODEP
 

Latinos with Disabilities in the United States: Understanding & Addressing Barriers to Employment

January 2006 | Report/Brief

World Institute on Disability - Proyecto Visión, Kathy Martinez and Robin Savinar, 2006 This groundbreaking report co-authored by Kathleen Martinez, current Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor for Disability Employment Policy,...

Complying with Section 511: Approaches that Promote Competitive Integrated Employment for Youth and Adults

LEAD Center | August 2018 | Report/Brief

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), signed into law in 2014, added Section 511, “Limitations on the Use of Subminimum Wage,” to Title V of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. 

Neurodiversity Brief: Building an Accessible Workforce Development System: Recommendations to American Job Centers on Supporting Autistic People and Others with Disabilities to Promote Successful Employment

LEAD Center | July 2018 | Report/Brief

This brief discusses actions that American Job Center (AJC) staff can take to make their services more accessible to autistic people and others with psychosocial, cognitive, intellectual, and developmental disabilities (DD).

Business Engagement Self-Assessment Tool

June 2018 | Tool/Manual
WorkforceGPS Business Engagement Collaborative

This self-assessment is designed to help states and regions better understand how integrated and effective their business services are currently, and where enhancements can be made.

CareerOneStop Youth Program Finder

Website
CareerOneStop

The Youth Program Finder was created in response to requests for help locating services for people age 16 to 24. The Finder was designed to be used by young people on their own, or by adult intermediaries.

The ADA, Section 504 & Postsecondary Education

June 2018 | Tool/Manual
PACER's National Parent Center on Transition and Employment

This transition handout answers frequently asked questions about the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and postsecondary programs including questions related to admissions, architectural accessibility, dorm rooms, accommodations, disability...

Training Module: Assistive Technology in the Workplace

June 2018 | Presentation
Job Accommodation Network (JAN)

Assistive technology enables individuals with disabilities to access devices, equipment, and services so that they can perform job tasks and maintain employment.

Policy Brief: Reviewing and Updating Your WIOA Unified or Combined State Plan from a Disability Perspective

LEAD Center | February 2018 | Report/Brief

On January 24, 2018, the Department of Labor’s (DOL’s) Employment and Training Administration (ETA) issued new guidance to State Workforce Agencies, State and Local Workforce Boards and other partners (

CareerOneStop Local Help Tools

Website

CareerOneStop has updated more than a dozen local help finder tools for easy access from smartphones, tablets, or desktop computers. The Local Help collection of tools can quickly provide location and contact information for a variety of programs...

Disability and Employment: Connect the Pieces

Website

These resources are designed to help connect three key pieces together -- the American Job Center, the employer and individuals with disabilities.

LEAD On! Articles

WIOA Advisory Committee Holds Eighth Meeting

June 30, 2016

On April 27 and 28, the Advisory Committee on Increasing Competitive Integrated Employment for Individuals with Disabilities held its eighth meeting.

WIOA Services and Performance Begins July 1st

June 30, 2016

Breaking News: Final Rules were issued for the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act on June 30, 2016. For more information, please visit https://www.doleta.gov/WIOA/.

LEAD Center Promotes Disability Policy at Multiple National and State Conferences

March 31, 2016

2nd Annual Independence through Employment Conference (Florida)

AbilityOne Releases Statement on Subminimum Wage

March 31, 2016

On March 18, 2016, the U.S.

LEAD Center Reviews Unified WIOA State Plans: What We Learned

March 31, 2016

LEAD Center staff reviewed state plans from California, Iowa, and North Carolina utilizing a guide we developed that identifies key areas for plan design and implementation to advance effective and meaningful participation of youth and adults with

KT Consortium Meets to Discuss Effective WIOA Implementation

December 15, 2015

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) represents an opportunity for federally-funded employment-related training and technical assistance (TA) centers to educate, promote, and connect stakeholders to employment resources for jobseeke

WIOA Update: Submission of Unified/Combined State Plans

December 15, 2015

As the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) continues its process of implementation, there are many important aspects that states should be currently preparing for, including the submittal of th

LEAD Hosts “Disability, Employment, and Lane v. Brown” Webinar

December 15, 2015

On October 22nd the LEAD Center hosted a webinar titled “Disability, Employment & Lane v.

LEAD PEOPLE Danielle Smith, State Equal Opportunity Officer - Missouri Division of Workforce Development-DED

December 15, 2015

Danielle Smith is the State of Missouri WIA Equal Opportunity Officer

News

OPM Issues Final Rule to Simplify Schedule A Hiring Authority for Persons With Disabilities

February 21, 2013

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued final regulations for the “Schedule A Hiring Authority” to simplify the hiring process of people with intellectual, significant and psychiatric disabilities by not requiring candidates who have...

Monster.Com First in Industry to Make Website Accessible for Blind Users

January 30, 2013

The popular job search website Monster.com will be the first job search and recruitment website in the industry to provide job seekers who are blind with full and equal access to all of its products and services including mobile applications.

U.S. Labor Department Awards $1.1 million Grant to Establish Technical Assistance Center for Increasing Employment of People with Disabilities

September 27, 2012

The U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy on Sept.

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Blogs

Bring Your Whole Self...To the Job Search

October 29, 2014

I’ve had the pleasure of listening to Kathy Martinez, Assistant Secretary for the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy, speak on a number of different occasions over the years.

Advancing the Ideals of National Disability Employment Awareness Month

October 24, 2014

As we head into the final week of National Disability Employment Awareness Month (NDEAM), much progress has been in the disability employment movement. Momentum is obviously on our side. But, that does not mean the road ahead will be easy or as fast...

Eight Actions You Can Consider to Support Youth and Adults with Disabilities in WIOA Implementation

October 14, 2014

President Obama signed the Workforce innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) into law on July 22, 2014.

In the Know: Opening the Doors of Small Business to Employees with Disabilities - Critical Concerns, and Strategies to Success

September 15, 2014

Small businesses are the backbone of our nation's economy. In fact, in the United States, small businesses account for over 50 percent of all newly created jobs. While small businesses can provide excellent opportunities for millions of Americans,...

In the Know: Poverty and Opportunity Profile - Disability

August 14, 2014

In the Know is a bi-monthly feature on the LEAD Center blog that will highlight important resources and information about the employment, policy and economic advancement of people with disabilities.

In the Know: American Job Center

July 10, 2014

In the Know is a bi-monthly feature on the LEAD Center blog that will highlight important resources and information about the employment, policy and economic advancement of people with disabilities.

In the Know: Persons with Disabilities: Labor Force Characteristics Summary

June 19, 2014

Our nation's economy continues to improve, the overall unemployment rate continues to fall and businesses are hiring at rates near pre-Great Recession levels. Unfortunately, however, the employment situation for people with disabilities is largely...

In the Know: Research Brief: Disability Inclusive Recruitment and Hiring Practices and Policies: Who Has Them and What Difference Does it Really Make?

May 21, 2014

Dedicated to advancing knowledge, policies and practices to enhance the opportunities of people with disabilities, Cornell University's Employment and Disability Institute recently released this report to further examine inclusive workforce...

In the Know: Report on the Employment of Individuals with Disabilities in the Federal Executive Branch

April 8, 2014

This highly anticipated report from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers exciting news about employment of persons with disabilities in the federal government.

In the Know: Reasonable Accommodation - A Simple Step-by-Step Guide

March 24, 2014

This 2013 webcast from JAN's Federal Winter Webcast Series Rewind provides a practical approach to processing requests for reasonable accommodation in the workplace. The step-by-step guide is easy to understand and can be used to examine requests....

Categories - Phablet

Resources

 
LEAD Center - A Resource Developed by LEAD Center for ODEP
 

Latinos with Disabilities in the United States: Understanding & Addressing Barriers to Employment

January 2006 | Report/Brief

World Institute on Disability - Proyecto Visión, Kathy Martinez and Robin Savinar, 2006 This groundbreaking report co-authored by Kathleen Martinez, current Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor for Disability Employment Policy,...

Complying with Section 511: Approaches that Promote Competitive Integrated Employment for Youth and Adults

LEAD Center | August 2018 | Report/Brief

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), signed into law in 2014, added Section 511, “Limitations on the Use of Subminimum Wage,” to Title V of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. 

Neurodiversity Brief: Building an Accessible Workforce Development System: Recommendations to American Job Centers on Supporting Autistic People and Others with Disabilities to Promote Successful Employment

LEAD Center | July 2018 | Report/Brief

This brief discusses actions that American Job Center (AJC) staff can take to make their services more accessible to autistic people and others with psychosocial, cognitive, intellectual, and developmental disabilities (DD).

Business Engagement Self-Assessment Tool

June 2018 | Tool/Manual
WorkforceGPS Business Engagement Collaborative

This self-assessment is designed to help states and regions better understand how integrated and effective their business services are currently, and where enhancements can be made.

CareerOneStop Youth Program Finder

Website
CareerOneStop

The Youth Program Finder was created in response to requests for help locating services for people age 16 to 24. The Finder was designed to be used by young people on their own, or by adult intermediaries.

The ADA, Section 504 & Postsecondary Education

June 2018 | Tool/Manual
PACER's National Parent Center on Transition and Employment

This transition handout answers frequently asked questions about the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and postsecondary programs including questions related to admissions, architectural accessibility, dorm rooms, accommodations, disability...

Training Module: Assistive Technology in the Workplace

June 2018 | Presentation
Job Accommodation Network (JAN)

Assistive technology enables individuals with disabilities to access devices, equipment, and services so that they can perform job tasks and maintain employment.

Policy Brief: Reviewing and Updating Your WIOA Unified or Combined State Plan from a Disability Perspective

LEAD Center | February 2018 | Report/Brief

On January 24, 2018, the Department of Labor’s (DOL’s) Employment and Training Administration (ETA) issued new guidance to State Workforce Agencies, State and Local Workforce Boards and other partners (

CareerOneStop Local Help Tools

Website

CareerOneStop has updated more than a dozen local help finder tools for easy access from smartphones, tablets, or desktop computers. The Local Help collection of tools can quickly provide location and contact information for a variety of programs...

Disability and Employment: Connect the Pieces

Website

These resources are designed to help connect three key pieces together -- the American Job Center, the employer and individuals with disabilities.

LEAD On! Articles

WIOA Advisory Committee Holds Eighth Meeting

June 30, 2016

On April 27 and 28, the Advisory Committee on Increasing Competitive Integrated Employment for Individuals with Disabilities held its eighth meeting.

WIOA Services and Performance Begins July 1st

June 30, 2016

Breaking News: Final Rules were issued for the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act on June 30, 2016. For more information, please visit https://www.doleta.gov/WIOA/.

LEAD Center Promotes Disability Policy at Multiple National and State Conferences

March 31, 2016

2nd Annual Independence through Employment Conference (Florida)

AbilityOne Releases Statement on Subminimum Wage

March 31, 2016

On March 18, 2016, the U.S.

LEAD Center Reviews Unified WIOA State Plans: What We Learned

March 31, 2016

LEAD Center staff reviewed state plans from California, Iowa, and North Carolina utilizing a guide we developed that identifies key areas for plan design and implementation to advance effective and meaningful participation of youth and adults with

KT Consortium Meets to Discuss Effective WIOA Implementation

December 15, 2015

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) represents an opportunity for federally-funded employment-related training and technical assistance (TA) centers to educate, promote, and connect stakeholders to employment resources for jobseeke

WIOA Update: Submission of Unified/Combined State Plans

December 15, 2015

As the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) continues its process of implementation, there are many important aspects that states should be currently preparing for, including the submittal of th

LEAD Hosts “Disability, Employment, and Lane v. Brown” Webinar

December 15, 2015

On October 22nd the LEAD Center hosted a webinar titled “Disability, Employment & Lane v.

LEAD PEOPLE Danielle Smith, State Equal Opportunity Officer - Missouri Division of Workforce Development-DED

December 15, 2015

Danielle Smith is the State of Missouri WIA Equal Opportunity Officer

News

OPM Issues Final Rule to Simplify Schedule A Hiring Authority for Persons With Disabilities

February 21, 2013

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued final regulations for the “Schedule A Hiring Authority” to simplify the hiring process of people with intellectual, significant and psychiatric disabilities by not requiring candidates who have...

Monster.Com First in Industry to Make Website Accessible for Blind Users

January 30, 2013

The popular job search website Monster.com will be the first job search and recruitment website in the industry to provide job seekers who are blind with full and equal access to all of its products and services including mobile applications.

U.S. Labor Department Awards $1.1 million Grant to Establish Technical Assistance Center for Increasing Employment of People with Disabilities

September 27, 2012

The U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy on Sept.

  •  

Blogs

Bring Your Whole Self...To the Job Search

October 29, 2014

I’ve had the pleasure of listening to Kathy Martinez, Assistant Secretary for the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy, speak on a number of different occasions over the years.

Advancing the Ideals of National Disability Employment Awareness Month

October 24, 2014

As we head into the final week of National Disability Employment Awareness Month (NDEAM), much progress has been in the disability employment movement. Momentum is obviously on our side. But, that does not mean the road ahead will be easy or as fast...

Eight Actions You Can Consider to Support Youth and Adults with Disabilities in WIOA Implementation

October 14, 2014

President Obama signed the Workforce innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) into law on July 22, 2014.

In the Know: Opening the Doors of Small Business to Employees with Disabilities - Critical Concerns, and Strategies to Success

September 15, 2014

Small businesses are the backbone of our nation's economy. In fact, in the United States, small businesses account for over 50 percent of all newly created jobs. While small businesses can provide excellent opportunities for millions of Americans,...

In the Know: Poverty and Opportunity Profile - Disability

August 14, 2014

In the Know is a bi-monthly feature on the LEAD Center blog that will highlight important resources and information about the employment, policy and economic advancement of people with disabilities.

In the Know: American Job Center

July 10, 2014

In the Know is a bi-monthly feature on the LEAD Center blog that will highlight important resources and information about the employment, policy and economic advancement of people with disabilities.

In the Know: Persons with Disabilities: Labor Force Characteristics Summary

June 19, 2014

Our nation's economy continues to improve, the overall unemployment rate continues to fall and businesses are hiring at rates near pre-Great Recession levels. Unfortunately, however, the employment situation for people with disabilities is largely...

In the Know: Research Brief: Disability Inclusive Recruitment and Hiring Practices and Policies: Who Has Them and What Difference Does it Really Make?

May 21, 2014

Dedicated to advancing knowledge, policies and practices to enhance the opportunities of people with disabilities, Cornell University's Employment and Disability Institute recently released this report to further examine inclusive workforce...

In the Know: Report on the Employment of Individuals with Disabilities in the Federal Executive Branch

April 8, 2014

This highly anticipated report from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers exciting news about employment of persons with disabilities in the federal government.

In the Know: Reasonable Accommodation - A Simple Step-by-Step Guide

March 24, 2014

This 2013 webcast from JAN's Federal Winter Webcast Series Rewind provides a practical approach to processing requests for reasonable accommodation in the workplace. The step-by-step guide is easy to understand and can be used to examine requests....

Categories - Phone

Resources

 
LEAD Center - A Resource Developed by LEAD Center for ODEP
 

Latinos with Disabilities in the United States: Understanding & Addressing Barriers to Employment

January 2006 | Report/Brief

World Institute on Disability - Proyecto Visión, Kathy Martinez and Robin Savinar, 2006 This groundbreaking report co-authored by Kathleen Martinez, current Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor for Disability Employment Policy,...

Complying with Section 511: Approaches that Promote Competitive Integrated Employment for Youth and Adults

LEAD Center | August 2018 | Report/Brief

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), signed into law in 2014, added Section 511, “Limitations on the Use of Subminimum Wage,” to Title V of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. 

Neurodiversity Brief: Building an Accessible Workforce Development System: Recommendations to American Job Centers on Supporting Autistic People and Others with Disabilities to Promote Successful Employment

LEAD Center | July 2018 | Report/Brief

This brief discusses actions that American Job Center (AJC) staff can take to make their services more accessible to autistic people and others with psychosocial, cognitive, intellectual, and developmental disabilities (DD).

Business Engagement Self-Assessment Tool

June 2018 | Tool/Manual
WorkforceGPS Business Engagement Collaborative

This self-assessment is designed to help states and regions better understand how integrated and effective their business services are currently, and where enhancements can be made.

CareerOneStop Youth Program Finder

Website
CareerOneStop

The Youth Program Finder was created in response to requests for help locating services for people age 16 to 24. The Finder was designed to be used by young people on their own, or by adult intermediaries.

The ADA, Section 504 & Postsecondary Education

June 2018 | Tool/Manual
PACER's National Parent Center on Transition and Employment

This transition handout answers frequently asked questions about the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and postsecondary programs including questions related to admissions, architectural accessibility, dorm rooms, accommodations, disability...

Training Module: Assistive Technology in the Workplace

June 2018 | Presentation
Job Accommodation Network (JAN)

Assistive technology enables individuals with disabilities to access devices, equipment, and services so that they can perform job tasks and maintain employment.

Policy Brief: Reviewing and Updating Your WIOA Unified or Combined State Plan from a Disability Perspective

LEAD Center | February 2018 | Report/Brief

On January 24, 2018, the Department of Labor’s (DOL’s) Employment and Training Administration (ETA) issued new guidance to State Workforce Agencies, State and Local Workforce Boards and other partners (

CareerOneStop Local Help Tools

Website

CareerOneStop has updated more than a dozen local help finder tools for easy access from smartphones, tablets, or desktop computers. The Local Help collection of tools can quickly provide location and contact information for a variety of programs...

Disability and Employment: Connect the Pieces

Website

These resources are designed to help connect three key pieces together -- the American Job Center, the employer and individuals with disabilities.

LEAD On! Articles

WIOA Advisory Committee Holds Eighth Meeting

June 30, 2016

On April 27 and 28, the Advisory Committee on Increasing Competitive Integrated Employment for Individuals with Disabilities held its eighth meeting.

WIOA Services and Performance Begins July 1st

June 30, 2016

Breaking News: Final Rules were issued for the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act on June 30, 2016. For more information, please visit https://www.doleta.gov/WIOA/.

LEAD Center Promotes Disability Policy at Multiple National and State Conferences

March 31, 2016

2nd Annual Independence through Employment Conference (Florida)

AbilityOne Releases Statement on Subminimum Wage

March 31, 2016

On March 18, 2016, the U.S.

LEAD Center Reviews Unified WIOA State Plans: What We Learned

March 31, 2016

LEAD Center staff reviewed state plans from California, Iowa, and North Carolina utilizing a guide we developed that identifies key areas for plan design and implementation to advance effective and meaningful participation of youth and adults with

KT Consortium Meets to Discuss Effective WIOA Implementation

December 15, 2015

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) represents an opportunity for federally-funded employment-related training and technical assistance (TA) centers to educate, promote, and connect stakeholders to employment resources for jobseeke

WIOA Update: Submission of Unified/Combined State Plans

December 15, 2015

As the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) continues its process of implementation, there are many important aspects that states should be currently preparing for, including the submittal of th

LEAD Hosts “Disability, Employment, and Lane v. Brown” Webinar

December 15, 2015

On October 22nd the LEAD Center hosted a webinar titled “Disability, Employment & Lane v.

LEAD PEOPLE Danielle Smith, State Equal Opportunity Officer - Missouri Division of Workforce Development-DED

December 15, 2015

Danielle Smith is the State of Missouri WIA Equal Opportunity Officer

News

OPM Issues Final Rule to Simplify Schedule A Hiring Authority for Persons With Disabilities

February 21, 2013

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued final regulations for the “Schedule A Hiring Authority” to simplify the hiring process of people with intellectual, significant and psychiatric disabilities by not requiring candidates who have...

Monster.Com First in Industry to Make Website Accessible for Blind Users

January 30, 2013

The popular job search website Monster.com will be the first job search and recruitment website in the industry to provide job seekers who are blind with full and equal access to all of its products and services including mobile applications.

U.S. Labor Department Awards $1.1 million Grant to Establish Technical Assistance Center for Increasing Employment of People with Disabilities

September 27, 2012

The U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy on Sept.

  •  

Blogs

Bring Your Whole Self...To the Job Search

October 29, 2014

I’ve had the pleasure of listening to Kathy Martinez, Assistant Secretary for the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy, speak on a number of different occasions over the years.

Advancing the Ideals of National Disability Employment Awareness Month

October 24, 2014

As we head into the final week of National Disability Employment Awareness Month (NDEAM), much progress has been in the disability employment movement. Momentum is obviously on our side. But, that does not mean the road ahead will be easy or as fast...

Eight Actions You Can Consider to Support Youth and Adults with Disabilities in WIOA Implementation

October 14, 2014

President Obama signed the Workforce innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) into law on July 22, 2014.

In the Know: Opening the Doors of Small Business to Employees with Disabilities - Critical Concerns, and Strategies to Success

September 15, 2014

Small businesses are the backbone of our nation's economy. In fact, in the United States, small businesses account for over 50 percent of all newly created jobs. While small businesses can provide excellent opportunities for millions of Americans,...

In the Know: Poverty and Opportunity Profile - Disability

August 14, 2014

In the Know is a bi-monthly feature on the LEAD Center blog that will highlight important resources and information about the employment, policy and economic advancement of people with disabilities.

In the Know: American Job Center

July 10, 2014

In the Know is a bi-monthly feature on the LEAD Center blog that will highlight important resources and information about the employment, policy and economic advancement of people with disabilities.

In the Know: Persons with Disabilities: Labor Force Characteristics Summary

June 19, 2014

Our nation's economy continues to improve, the overall unemployment rate continues to fall and businesses are hiring at rates near pre-Great Recession levels. Unfortunately, however, the employment situation for people with disabilities is largely...

In the Know: Research Brief: Disability Inclusive Recruitment and Hiring Practices and Policies: Who Has Them and What Difference Does it Really Make?

May 21, 2014

Dedicated to advancing knowledge, policies and practices to enhance the opportunities of people with disabilities, Cornell University's Employment and Disability Institute recently released this report to further examine inclusive workforce...

In the Know: Report on the Employment of Individuals with Disabilities in the Federal Executive Branch

April 8, 2014

This highly anticipated report from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers exciting news about employment of persons with disabilities in the federal government.

In the Know: Reasonable Accommodation - A Simple Step-by-Step Guide

March 24, 2014

This 2013 webcast from JAN's Federal Winter Webcast Series Rewind provides a practical approach to processing requests for reasonable accommodation in the workplace. The step-by-step guide is easy to understand and can be used to examine requests....